Теми за устен изпит по английски в туризма

Теми за устен изпит по английски в туризма


Hotel staff

The name of hotel jobs and departments are different in different hotels, but there some that are the same in every hotel.

The Reception is the place where guests make reservations , check in and check out.

The housekeeping department take care of cleaning and decorating the hotel and supply the guestrooms with all necessary consumables.

The manager is in overall charge of the hotel. He or she negotiates with travel agencies, plans ahead, has meeting and so on.

The assistant manager is responsible for the day to day running of the hotel. All hotel department report to him or her.


The reception employers are –Front office manager, receptionist , front office cashier, bellboy, doorman, liftboy, telephone operator, consierge


Front office manager-is in charge of whole  reception area.

Receptionist register arriving guests, check out guests, assign rooms. They also keep records of room   assignment  and other registration – related information on computer.

The front office cashier is responsible for guest’s bill and exchange foreign currency.

The bellboy escorts the guests for their room and carry their luggage, show them how to operate the equipment in the rooms, deliver mail and messages.

The doorman stands by the entrance  hotel door, opens and closes the front door ,greets the guests, call  taxi for them, helps them with the luggage.

The consierge provides information about trains, buses, taxies, planes, local entertainment, places of interest and so on. He or she arranges excursion, books travel or theatre tickets and so on.

The telephone operator connects incoming and outgoing calls.


Housekeeping department- housekeeper ,chambermaids , cleaners, storekeeper, laundry  maid

The housekeeper is responsible for the general cleanliness  of the hotel .Supervises  the work of the house keeping staff.

The chambermaids clean the guests’ room and supply consumables.

The cleaners do communal premises , the corridors, lobbies and  lounges.

The laundry maid take care of guest’s clothes, if they want them washed, cleaned and pressed.

The storekeeper is in charge of the stores and supplies.

The mainterance department is responsible for the technical equipment of the hotel. Technicians, plumbers, electricians and other specialist work in this department.


Restaurant staff


Restaurant staff includes the  management staff ,the dining room staff and the kitchen staff.


The management staff are the people who run the business. Includes – the manager or owner, the accountant, cashier,  purchasing agent and storekeeper.

The manager runs the business. He take part in the menu planning, supervising the staff and so on…

The accountant are responsible for the financial side of the business.

Cashier deal with payments.

Purchasing agent supply the necessary products.

Storekeeper are in charge of the story.


The dining room staff includes the employees who come into contact with the customers.

The headwaiter is responsible for advance reservation .He welcome the guests, seats them, take orders for aperitifs. He supervises the work of  dining room staff.

Waiters have contact with the customers. They take order, bring the dishes and drinks, take the guest’s money for bill.

The wine waiter  or Sommelier server wines, beers ,soft and spirits drink .

Busboy or busgirl set the table, clean the table, remove the dirty plates and reset the table.


The kitchen staff includes the chef, cooks, kitchen helpers, dishwashers and so on.

The chef is the head of the kitchen staff. He plans the menu, prices the dishes, supervises the work of all kitchen staff. He also cooks specialties .

Cooks-cooking different dishes.

kitchen helpers wash and cut vegetables, stir sauces clean kitchen

dishwashers – do the washing up by the hands or automatic dishwasher


Sport Tourism

Sport Tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event.

The climate of Bulgaria gives to the winter sports lovers a long season and soft weather.  All of the mountains in the country offer a beautiful nature and good conditions for winter tourism – skiing, snowboarding, hiking, ice climbing, snowshoes, sledges   tours plus   many more. The most popular ski resorts are Bansko, Borovets, Pamporovo and Vitosha mountain. But if tourists  like to escape from the larger resorts there is a variety of places - Govedartsi, Dobrinishte and Panichishte with its accommodation huts, small hotels or in the villages around these slopes.


Bulgarian Seaside Resorts offer many opportunity for sports: surfing, water skis and parachutes, hang-gliding and banana, sailing, yachts, paddle boats, cutters, scooters, rowboats, tennis courts, beach volleyball, playing grounds, mini-golf, skittle alley, bowling, riding ground, fitness halls, sports tournaments for amateurs and professionals.

A genuine children's paradise - plenty of fun and games, children pools, slides, carting, inflatable trampoline, sport schools.


Nightlife in Bulgaria- in the resorts there are a great range of discos, bars, nightclubs, karaoke bars and casinos.


 Horse riding- Five Bulgarian mountains: Rila , Strandja,, Rhodope , Pirin  and the Balkan Range offer varied support and excellent itineraries for horse riding


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Borovets, the first and most famous Bulgarian mountain resort, is situated on the northern slopes of the Rila Mountain at an altitude of 1300 meters. The resort enjoys a perfect location right at the foot of peak Musala (2925 m), the highest peak on the Balkans. Only 72 km away from Sofia and just 126 km away from Plovdiv, Borovets is easily accessible from all parts of Bulgaria.

Borovets is the oldest Bulgarian winter resort with a history that dates back to 1896. Today Borovets is the biggest and most famous skiing center in the country in terms of length and capacity of ski runs and lifts. is situated on the northern slopes of the Rila Mountain at an altitude of 1300 meters. The resort enjoys a perfect location right at the foot of peak Musala (2925 m), the highest peak on the Balkans. Huddled in venerable pine woods ,it is the perfect place for winter sports and recreation.The winter in the resort is mild and snowy. The average temperature in January - the coldest month is about 5°C. The ski season in Borovets is from the middle of December to April. The resort offers excellent conditions for winter sports: alpine skiing, snowboarding and cross country. Borovets is a challenging and favorite place for snowboarders to whom the resort offers terrains of various difficulty levels

Only 72 km away from Sofia and just 126 km away from Plovdiv, Borovets is easily accessible from all parts of Bulgaria.

Snow scenery, sun and of course a great variety of ski runs – 24 tracks with a total length of 58 km. The cross country trails are 35 km long, designed according to the requirements of Fédération Internationale de Ski, at minimum width of 6 m.
The ski runs offer various degrees of difficulty levels and traffic intensity and are suitable for beginners as well as for advanced and expert skiers.

The ski runs are grouped in 3 regions: Sitnyakovo , Markudzhik and Yastrebets. Borovest has hosted twice competitions from the Alpine skiing World Cup. After the day is over, the resort continues to be just as busy and full of bustling life thanks to the conditions provided for night skiing and the numerous cozy taverns and bars.

The snowmaking system is working full-time during the ski season as well as night skiing. The runs are sound-tracked and lit up by modern lighting systems  and meeting all European standards.

The largest ski school with more than 200 ski instructors most of whom are former professional skiers. The ski school is well known all over Europe and is a member of the international ski-instructors association INTERSKI

Borovets offers first class accommodation in luxurious hotels or cosy mountain chalets.

The hotels at Borovets offer various opportunities for recreation and entertainment off the slopes, with indoor swimming pools and spa centres in some of them. There are numerous

bars and clubs and restaurants witch serve range of Bulgarian, European and world cuisines.

The area around the resort is rich in historical, natural and religious places of interest.

16 km away from Borovets are the scenic mountain villages of Beli Iskar and Govedartsi,

and the nearby town of Samokov offers not only interesting sites to visit, but also important services, such as a hospital, post office, bank offices and supermarkets.


Sunny  Beach is situated in the southern part of Bulgarian Black sea .It is the largest and the most popular holiday resort in Bulgaria. It stretches along a beautiful semicircular bay facing east. Closed to the north by the slopes of the Stara planina Mountains. The combination of coniferous and deciduous groves and vast sandy beaches makes Sunny Beach holidays realy healthy ones. This is one of the few places along the coast where you can still see sand dunes among which sixteen rare plants grow. They are listed in the Red book of Bulgaria.

To the south, lying on a small peninsula is the ancient town of Nessembar  - an architectural and historical reserve that has preserved a wealth of early and late medieval churches and National Revival houses.

The site was developed for tourism as early as 1958.Nowadays the hotels have been completely modernized and equipped with cozy bar,restaurant,amusement center and swimming pools. Also,a lot of new hotels have been built and the today the resort has over 800 hotels with more than 300000 beds.

Bulgarian Black sea coast has a unique climate due to the combination of sea and mountain air, which is most favourable for people with asthmatic and respiratory conditions. And the sea is shallow with out of dangerous fishes and animals.

The airport serving Sunny Beach are Burgas Airport(around 25 km) and Varna Airport(around 100 km).It is well connected by bus with all larger Bulgarian cityes.But there is not direct connection by train.There is railway  station in Burgas(around 30 km).In the summer bus and mini-bus Burgas-Sunny beach run every 30 minutes.

Attractions for tourists include the sunning at the beach,water sport and nearby historical site of Nessebar. There are two aqua parks near the resort.Sunny beach is mainly popular amongst young people for its nightlife and banter.Lunapark is an amusement park in the center.The most extreme attraction is roller castler.

Apart from water sports tourists can play mini-golf,tennis,horse-riding,volleyball of the beach and many other…

Well-trained babysistter can take care of the children while there parents relaxing.For  children there are playgrounds with slides and swings,inflatable castles,childrens pools and many others…..

Sunny beach offers great variety of restaurants witch serve traditional by food as well as foreign cuisine





The Republic of Bulgaria lies in south-east Europe. It occupies the north-eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It borders five countries: Romania to the north (along the Danube River), Serbia and Republic of Macedonia to the west and south-west, Greece and Turkey to the south .The Black sea is the boundary of the country to the east.

Bulgaria has an area of 111 000 square km and population about 7 million people.

Bulgaria has a varied landscape which includes high mountains, vast plains, pictures valleys and a beautiful coastal strip with fine beaches, which is 378 long.

Two Alpine ranges rise in the south-west of the country-Rila and Pirin. They include the highest and the second highest peaks in the Balkan penincula. Musala is 2925 m high, and peak Vihren is 2915 m above sea level.

The long range of the Balkan mountains divides  the country into two parts-North and South Bulgaria. The Sredna   Gora range runs parallel to the Balkan mountains.

The plain north of the Balkan is Danubian  Plain.The famous Rose valley nestles between the Balkan mountains and the Sredna Gora range.

The Plain of Upper Trace is between the Sredna Gora Mountains and the Rodops.

The Danube is Bulgarian’s only navigable river.The longest Bulgarian river is the Iskar.It rises in the Rila Mountains and flows into the Danube.The two major rivers in the south are the Struma and The Maritsa.They both flow into the Aegean sea.

There are about 600 mineral springs in Bulgaria .Thera are above 260 glacial lakes in Rila and Pirin and several large lakes of the black sea coast.

Bulgaria has a temperate-continental climate,with cold winters and hot and dry summers.




Sofia is the capital city of Bulgaria and its cultural, administrative ,industrial and educational centre of the country with a population  of about 1,4 million people.

It motto is “Ever growing ,never aging”

Sofia is the biggest city in Bulgaria.It lies at 550 m above sea level. It’s surrounded by the Balkan Mountain to the north, mount Vitosha to the south, Lyulin to the west.

International routes links connects Sofia to the capital of Europe and through Istanbul to the Middle East.

As the capital of Bulgaria, Sofia is the seat of the National Assembly and of all the major Bulgarian state institutions.

Sofia is very old city. The first settlement was founded by the Thracians of the Seri tribe in the 7th century BC who settled here because of the hot mineral springs and its strategic location at the crossroads of important routes. Nowadays there are 7 mineral springs in the city.

The Thracians settlement was called Serdika after the name of the tribe.

Sofia became the capital of Bulgaria in 1879. It had several names until the 14th century when it was called Sofia after the name of the church of the same name .

In the past 20 yaers Sofia changes from a boring place to a moderen lively capital. It has a beautiful center with old buildings which have been restored.There are also a lot of new buildings and office centeres.Sofia is amazing destination for party.In fact-there are over 300 bars, resturants, diskos and cafes.

There are a lot of sides that must be visited-Alexander Nevsky memorial church, The rotonda  of st.Geoege ,Church of saint Petka ,The monument of the tsar Liberator ,The national palace of culture (NDK),Ivan Vazov National theatre ,The tomb of Unknowen soldier amd many others.


Bulgarian cuisine


Bulgaria lies in the middle of the Balkan Peninsula and its cuisine has much in common with the styles of cooking in the other Balkan countries.

Bulgarian eat a lot of  vegetables-  raw, cooked or pickled. Peppers, potatoes, onion, tomatoes , carrots and garlic are important ingredients of a lot of traditional dishes. The most usually used herbs  are mint, parsley, dill and savory.

Bulgarian cuisine is exceptionally diverse and delicious, consisting of various salads, breadstuffs, stews, and other local dishes.


Salads are eaten as a starter or with the main dish. The most popular Bulgarian salad is the

Shopska Salad.  It is made from tomatoes, cucumbers,peppers  and onion, topped  white cheese.

Soups are also very popular starters . Excellent fish soups are served in the regions of the Black Sea and the Danube River.


ripe soup is a boiled pork or veal tripe seasoned with garlic and vinegar.


One of the most popular cold  soup  is Tarator . It is prepared with diluted yogurt, chopped cucumbers and seasoned with crushed garlic and walnuts.


Yoghurt or Bulgarian kiselo mlyako is an important part of many Bulgarian dishes.


Some of the most popular Bulgarian dishes are grilled – meat balls, kebapches, grilled meat pieces, grilled sausages, and others.


One of the most famous and most popular breakfast items in the country is banitsa. It is pastry  with cheese and eggs made with phyllo sheeds .


Another favorite Bulgarian dish is prepared with stuffed cabbage or vine leaves with rice or mince meat.



Kind of tourism



The main destination for pleasure  tourism in Bulgaria are The Black sea coast and mountain resorts. Almost 60 percent of the accommodation facilities are located at the sea side. Skiing holidays are the second most popular tourism. Some of the country’s winters resorts  have earned deserve reputation of first-class skiing resort hosting accommodating international skiing events.

Other popular tourism is spa- to who want to restore and improve their health spa tourism is offered in numerous spa resort al well as in most seaside and mountain resorts.

Bulgaria has unique land formation and natural phenomena , rich flora and fauna , nature spots unspoilt untouched by civilization and provides great opportunities for ecotourism.

Bulgaria has a lot to offer in the field of cultural tourism- a wealth of historical and archeological monuments from different epochs.

The 160 orthodox monasteries located in the picturesque mountains promote the development of religious tourism.



Congress tourism includes congress facilities and services such as translating and interpreting, audio-video equipment , lectures hall and conference rooms , exhibition area, banqet rooms, ballrooms and so on, available in congress centers and resort hotels.


Hunting tourism - Fishing and hunting in Bulgaria is organized movement and is regulated by laws since 19 century.

Numerous forest and hunting farms and reserves are taking care for the game population.

Hunting of wolves, jackals and foxes, pheasants, pigeons and will ducks is full of emotion.


Agritourism –  the segment of tourism which arose with appreciation of activities and life in farmhouses.


Hobby tourism-The segment of tourism consisting of programmes aimed at participants interested in learning the customs of a certain people or region. For example- dance, folktradition ,gastronomy



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The healing power of mineral springs has been recognized since the time of the Thracians. Few countries in Europe can rival Bulgaria’s spa, balneological and wellness tourism, with its abundance and diversity of thermal mineral waters and curative mud deposits. There are more than 550 known sources with 1600 springs. The spring with the highest temperature is Sapareva Banya  103ºС, also the only geyser in Bulgaria and Continental Europe. The most famous thermal springs in the Balkan Mountains are in the regions of Varshets, on the Sofia plain ; in the Srednogorie; along the valley of Struma River ; along the valley of Mesta River; in the Rhodope Mountains.


Mineral springs located in the southern part of the country are influenced by the Mediterranean climate; other springs are found in mountain regions with coniferous vegetation and crystal springs; and still others are along the Black Sea coast. This, together with the great diversity of herbs and other flora used for aroma therapy and phytotherapy, provides opportunities for beneficial year-round treatment and prophylaxis of a range of ailments, and it also creates excellent conditions for relaxation.


The climate in the country is exceptionally favorable compared to that of traditional destinations for balneology tourism in Western Europe and the

Mediterranean. During the spring and summer months, rainfalls are lower in Bulgaria than in most of Europe.


The country is also known for its highly qualified personnel, excellent accommodations, and diverse programs and services that include massage, baths with mineral water, pearl baths, reflex therapy, medicinal exercises, acupuncture, laser therapy,, paraffin treatment, phytotherapy, mud treatment, aroma therapy, anti-stress programs, dieting programs and programs for losing weight, balneo-cosmetics, sauna, solarium, fitness, and medical cosmetics. All of this can be combined with various tourism programs, allowing visitors to explore Bulgaria’s cultural heritage, folkways, and traditional cuisine.


Bulgaria also possesses valuable deposits of curative firth mud and curative peat also known as a great place for balneo treatment due to the firth mud which acts favorably on diseases of the musculoskeletal system, skin and reproductive system. The healing procedures with mud are mostly done through massage, fitness, electrotherapy, underwater massage and mud baths. Mud treatment reflects favorably on problems with the musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, gynecological problems and skin diseases.


Bulgarian feasts


A lot of Bulgarian feasts and festivals are associated with the farming year.

Others are celebrates as feast days of orthodox saints.

Ancient rites have blended with Christian rituals


The festivals calendar begins with New Year's Day or Saint  Basil's. Day also known as survaki. On January 1st young children go from house and make New year wishes for happiness, health and luck durring the coming year. They sing special songs and slap the householders on the back with survaknitsa- a rod cut from a cornel tree adorned with dried fruit and popcorn.


In wine –producing areas  St. Tryfon's Day or Tryfon Zarezan is celebrated on 14 of  february. This is the time of the year when the vines are pruned, so the  name of the saint is Zarezan, which mean the Pruner.. On this day traditional fertility rites are performed in the vineyards: wine is poured on the roots of the vines and pruning starts to the accompaniment of traditional instruments .The new wine is tasted and traditional bulgarian horo is danced.


On March the  first  we celebrate Baba Marta or  Granny Marta. On this day people give  each other with a martenitsa. It made up of twined red and white woolen threads. To assure good health and protection from bad influence. People tie their martenitsas round the wrist or pin it on the lapel. They take them off when they  first see a stork or a swallow.



Easter- the anniversary of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ is movable feast  .The festivities are not very different from those in the rest of Europe. Easter eggs are dyed on Maundy  Thursday or Holy Saturday and Easter cakes and buns are baked.  The feast traditionally begins with striking dyed eggs one into another to see which the winner is-the hardest Easter egg. Luck and good health await its owner.


21 may day of saints Constantine and Elena-

Nestinarstvo is a fire ritual performed in the Stranja Range. In the evening the villagers gathered around the embers of huge  fire. The fire dancers play in front of the icons of two saints. They made prophecies for a rich harvest or hunger , happy events or disasters.


The end of farming year is celebrated on October 26- Dimitrov den or St. Demetrius’day


St. Nicholas “s Day –Nikulden is celebrated on December 6 not only by fishermen whose patron the saint is , but by all Bulgarians. The tradition is fish and especially carp dishes to be eaten on this day.


Koleduvane is similar to survakane-Christmas carol singing] is a custom, performed by men in the night on Christmas Eve (24 December). The Christmas carolers are dressed up in traditional costumes and have special decorations on their caps. They make a round of the homes from midnight on Christmas Eve to the morning on Christmas day and perform ritual Christmas carols for good health, happiness and fertility.


On the table on the Christmas Eve are meatless dishes: homemade bread, pumpkin pie, beans, cabbage leaves stuffed with rice, dried fruit compote, walnuts and garlic.



Types  of  foodservices


By the kind of service there are four categories of restaurants:

Table service restaurant is restaurant where customers sit at tables and are served by waiters.

Self-service restaurant – Customers pass in front of a counter on witch food is displayed. They help themselves what they want. They carry the food to a table themselves.

Counter services eating places are restaurants  where customers sit at a counter and are served either by the person who prepared food or by a waiter .

Takeaway or carryout restaurants often serve fast food .Customers place their orders at a counter and than take away the food where they want to eat it.



Types  of  foodservices establishment by the quality of the service and product:


The gourmet restaurants offer the best quality food and service ,decor and surroundings. It is expensive and luxurious.

The Family-type restaurant serves common food at moderate prices and it visited mostly by family groups.

Ethnic restaurant specialize in a type of national cuisine. The quality of the product and the prices are between those of gourmet and family-type restaurant.

The specialty restaurants offers a special type of food, cooking or atmosphere.


Beverage service


Soft drinks are non-alcoholic beverages.

Liquor or hard drink or spirits are alcoholic beverages.

Aperitif is a drink take before a meal.

Wine is fermented juice of grapes especially.

Liqueur – strong highly flavoured sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal.

Cocktail is a mixed drinks which contains one or more types of hard drinks, fruit juices, ice, soda, milk, herbs and so on.



Kind of coffee

Espresso is strong black coffee , made by forcing steam through the coffee.

Cappuccino is strong coffee with hot milk.

Decaf is coffee with no caffeine in it.

Black coffee is coffee without milk or cream.

White coffee is coffee with milk or cream.

Turkish coffee is strong black coffee boiled with sugar.

Irish coffee is strong coffee with whisky, brown sugar and cream


Hotel facilities and servicies



Room service provides meals and drinks in the guests’room. It is ordered by the telephone from a special meun in the room.

At the reception guest can get information about train, buses, plans, local events and places of interest, entertainment.

Travel, concert and theatre tickets can be booked for the guest .

Currency is exchanged.

Money and valuables can left for safekeeping.

The guest can order morning wake up calls.

The laundry and valet services provides washing ,cleaning and pressing of the guests’clothes.

Sports and recreation facilities include gyms, spa centers, bowling alleys, pools, tennis courts and so on.

In resort hotels the guests can ski and snowboard equipment, chesses set and so on

Resort hotels also offer ski-instructor.  , swimming- instructor., horse ride instructor and other kind of instructor.

Hotels which welcome children provide baby sitting , organized games, play rooms, playgrounds and so on.

Special service provided for disabled people ramps, stair lifts, special wide door and others…

Congress facilities and services include conference rooms, banquet rooms, lecture halls, audio-video translation and presentation equipment.



Hotel room (доста е непълна -има много още......)


Rooms usually contain a shower/bath and toilet. The room types are:


Single Room - designed for one person. In many hotels, a single room is actually the same as a double room.

Double Room - containing one king size  bed

Twin Room - with two single beds

Triple Room - containing three single beds or a standard room with an additional single bed

Suites are complete apartments with multiple rooms, generally intended for longer stays .


The standard room has : comfortable bed, two bedsides table ,wardrobe ,TV , desk or dressing table with mirror, chair, mini-bar with drinks , phone, hangers ,night lamp, air- conditioning. hair- dryer, soft carpet.


bathroom accessories: Towels, soap ,shampoo, toilet paper.

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